Basic Unix Commands
a) ln (redirecting file access)
b) passwd (changing your password)
d) du (disk usage)
mv fred wilma
This moves fred to a file named wilma. This is the Unix way of renaming a file. mv fred flintstones/fred
This moves fred to a file named fred in the subdirectory flintstones. This example could have been written mv fred flintstones/ as well, and the filename fred would have been retained in the new directory.
After executing this command, there will no longer be a fred file in the current directory.
cp fred wilma
This copies fred to a file named wilma.
cp fred flintstones/fred
This copies fred to a file named fred in the subdirectory flintstones.
This removes a file named flintstones.
rm -rf flintstones
This removes a directory named flintstones. The -r removes the directory, the -f forces it to remove files without asking you before it deletes each one.
In order to keep track of the possibly millions of files on-line, Unix systems have a directory tree, which enables meaningful classification of files. For example, the most essential system programs are kept in /bin/, user home directories are all under /home/, and everything having to do with the WWW is under /www/. More specifically, your home directory is /home/you/ and the directory for your WWW files is /www/htdocs/you/.
pwd This prints out your working directory: where you are. When you give a filename to a command without specifying some other directory, the filename is looked up, manipulated, or created in your current working directory.
This makes a subdirectory of the current directory named flintstones.
This changes the directory to the subdirectory named flintstones.
This changes the directory to the home directory of the flintstones.
This changes the directory to the WWW directory of the flintstones.
With no arguments, cd returns you to your home directory.
rmdir flintstones This removes the subdirectory flintstones. The directory must be empty for this to work.
Type ln -s fred.html index.html to redirect all file accesses from index.html to the file fred.html.
Type passwd to change your password.
Type zip to zip files and unzip to unzip files. This program is compatible with the zip program for DOS. For example:
zip myzip file1 file2 file3
This puts the files file1, file2, and file3 into a new zip archive called myzip.zip. On the other hand, if you had the archive myzip.zip and wanted to get back the files:
Typing zip or unzip by itself will give you a usage summary, showing nearly all the options availible.
The Unix command
du -s directory
shows how much disk space is used by a directory and everything below it. While we work on creating the complicated command needed to automatically check all the directories you are associated with, you can find out how much space is in use by the WWW files for a domain with
du -s /www/htdocs/domain
If you don't have anything much in your home directory or mail spool, this comes close to the total space you have in use. (You would know if you did have other things in your home directory, and could use du -s $HOME to check on that.)
If you have an anonymous FTP area, also check
du -s ~ftp/my.domain
For example, snoopy.com might need to run some number of the following:
du -s /www/htdocs/snoopy du -s ~ftp/snoopy.com du -s $HOME
and add the results to find out how much space he's using.
You might find it useful to use the -c command and group the paths
brown:~$ du -sc /www/htdocs/pir ~ftp/pir.com $HOME 5489 /www/htdocs/pir 4 /www/ftp/pir.com 13 /home/rmiller 5510 total
brown:~$ du -sc /www/htdocs/pir ~ftp/pir.com $HOME 5489 /www/htdocs/pir du: /www/ftp/pir.com/bin: Permission denied du: /www/ftp/pir.com/dev: Permission denied du: /www/ftp/pir.com/etc: Permission denied du: /www/ftp/pir.com/lib: Permission denied 4 /www/ftp/pir.com 13 /home/rmiller 5510 total
The numbers reported
are kilobytes. A senior or RealAudio account gets to use about
51,000 blocks before having additional charges. A junior or
telnet- only account gets about 5,100.
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